Lockwood, P.L., Abdurahman, A., Tamm, M., Gabay, A., Husain, M., & Apps, M.A.J., (2021). Ageing increases prosocial motivation for effort. Psychological Science. doi.org/10.1177/0963721420910811; Preprint  doi: 10.31234/osf.io/8c5ra


[preprint] Nitschke, J. P., Forbes, P., Ali, N., Cutler, J., Apps, M. A., Lockwood, P., & Lamm, C. (2020). Resilience During Uncertainty. Greater Social Connectedness During COVID-19 Lockdown is Associated with Reduced Distress and Fatigue. PsyArXiv. Doi:10.31234/osf.io/9ehm7

Contreras-Huerta, Luis Sebastian, Andrea Pisauro, and Matthew AJ Apps. (2020) Effort shapes social cognition and behaviour: a neuro-cognitive framework. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.08.003

Lockwood, P.L., Apps, M.A.J.* & Chang, S.W.C.* (2020). Is there a social brain? Implementations and Algorithms. Trends in Cognitive Sciences * equal contributors. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2020.06.011

Lockwood PL, O’Nell KC, Apps MAJ (2020) Anterior cingulate cortex: A brain system necessary for learning to reward others? PLoS Biol 18(6): e3000735. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000735


Anthony S Gabay, Matthew AJ Apps (2020): Foraging Optimally in Social Neuroscience: Computations and Methodological considerations. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsaa037


Le Heron, C., Kolling, N., Plant, O., Kienast, A., Janska, R., Fallon, S., Husain, M., & Apps, M.A.J., (2020) Dopamine drives dynamic decisions during human reward foraging. Journal of Neuroscience. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2586-19.2020

Contreras-Huerta, L., Bird, G., Lockwood, P., Apps, M.,* & Crockett, M.*  (2020) Prosocial behaviour is associated with transdiagnostic markers of affective sensitivity in multiple domains. Emotion. * equal contributors  https://psycnet.apa.org/fulltext/2020-54566-001.html


Tanja Müller, Matthew AJ Apps (2019): Motivational fatigue: A neurocognitive framework for the impact of effortful exertion on subsequent motivation. Neuropsychologia; vol 123, 141-151. PDF


Lockwood PL, Wittmann MK, Apps MAJ, Klein-Flügge MC, Crockett MJ, Humphreys GW, Rushworth MFS (2018): Neural mechanisms for learning self and other ownership. Nature Communications. PDF 

Apps, M.A. (2018) Stimulating Cingulate: Distinct behaviours arise from discrete zones. Brain. PDF

Chong, T., Apps, M.A., Giehl, K., Hall, S., Clifton, C., Husain, M. (2018) Computational modelling reveals distinct patterns of cognitive and physical motivation in elite athletes. Scientific Reports . PDF

Weiss, A.R., Gillies, M.J., Philiastides, M.G., Apps, M.A., Whittington, M.A., FitzGerald, J.J., Boccard, S.G., Aziz, T.Z., & Green, A.L. (2018) Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortices Differentially Lateralize Prediction Errors and Outcome Valence in a Decision-Making Task. Front. Hum. Neurosci. LINK

Lakens et al (2018). Justify Your Alpha: A Response to “Redefine Statistical Significance”. Nature Human Behaviour. PDF

Apps, M. A., McKay, R., Azevedo, R. T., Whitehouse, H., & Tsakiris, M. (2018). Not on my team: Medial prefrontal cortex responses to ingroup fusion and unfair monetary divisions. Brain and behavior. PDF


Draper, A., Koch, R., Van der Meer., Apps, M.A.J., Pickkers, P., Husain, M., & Van der Schaaf. (2017). Effort but not reward sensitivity is altered by acute sickness induced by experimental endotoxemia in humans. Neuropsychopharmacology. 

Lockwood, P.L., Hamonet, M., Zhang, S., Salmony, F., Ratnavel, A., Husain, M., & Apps, M.A.J.,* (2017). Prosocial apathy when helping others is too much effort.  Nature Human Behaviour. PDF

Chong, T-J. T.,* Apps, M.A.J.,* Sillence, A., Giehl, K., Grima, L., & Husain, M. (2017). Neurocomputational mechanisms of subjective motivation of effort costs.  PLoS Biology. *equal contributors. DATA. PDF. 

Le Heron, C., Apps, M.A.J., & Husain, M. (2017). The anatomy of apathy: a neurocognitive framework for amotivated behaviour. Neuropsychologia.PDF

Balsters, J.H., Apps, M.A.J., Bolis, D., Lehner, R., Gallagher, l., & Wenderoth, N. (2017). Disrupted prediction errors index social deficits in autism spectrum disorder. Brain. PDF

Apps, M.A.J., & Sallet, J. (2017). Social learning in the medial prefrontal cortex. Trends in Cognitive Science. PDF


Apps, M.A.J., Rushworth, M.F.S., Chang, S.W.C. (2016). The anterior cingulate gyrus and social cognition: tracking the motivation of others. Neuron. PDF

Ainley, V. Apps, M.A.J., Fotopolou, A., & Tsakiris, M. (2016). Bodily Precision: A Predictive Coding Account of Individual Differences in Interoceptive Accuracy Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. PDF

Farmer, H., Apps, M.A.J., & Tsakiris, M. (2016). Reputation in an Economic Game Modulates Premotor Cortex Activity during Action Observation. European Journal of Neuroscience. PDF

Lockwood, P.L., Apps, M.A.J., Valton, V., Viding, E., & Roiser, J.P (2016). Neurocomputational mechanisms of prosocial learning and links to empathy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. PDF

Balsters, J.H., Mantini, D., Apps, M.A., Eickhoff, S., Wenderoth, N. (2016). Connectivity-based parcellation increases network detection sensitivity in resting state fMRI: An investigation into the cingulate cortex in autism. Neuroimage: Clinical. PDF


Apps M.A.J. Grima, L., Manohar, S. & Husain, M. (2015). The role of cognitive effort in subjective reward devaluation and risky decision-making. Scientific Reports. PDF

Apps, M.A.J., Tajadura-Jimenez, A., Sereno, M., Blanke, O., & Tsakiris, M. (2015). Plasticity in unimodal and multimodal brain areas reflects multisensory changes in self-face identification. Cerebral Cortex.

Apps, M.A.J., Lesage, E., &  Ramnani, N. (2015). Vicarious reinforcement learning signals when instructing others. Journal of Neuroscience. PDF

Ang, Y-S., Manohar, S., &  Apps M.A.J. (2015). Commentary: Noradrenaline and Dopamine Neurons in the Reward/Effort Trade-off: A Direct Electrophysiological Comparison in Behaving Monkeys. Frontiers in Behavioural Neuroscience. PDF

Lockwood, P.L.,  Apps M.A.J., Roiser, J.P., & Viding, E. (2015). Encoding of Vicarious Reward Prediction in Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Relationship with Trait Empathy. Journal of Neuroscience. PDF

Manohar, S., Chong, T., Apps M.A.J. ... & Husain, M. (2015). Reward Pays the Cost of Noise Reduction in Motor and Cognitive Control. Current Biology. PDF

2014 and earlier

Apps, M.A.J., & Tsakiris, M. (2014). The free-energy self: A predictive coding account of self-recognition. Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Reviews. PDF

Apps, M.A.J., & Ramnani, N. (2014). The anterior cingulate gyrus signals the net-value of others rewards. Journal of Neuroscience. PDF

Apps, M. A., Tajadura-Jiménez, A., Sereno, M., Blanke, O., & Tsakiris, M. (2015). Plasticity in unimodal and multimodal brain areas reflects multisensory changes in self-face identification. Cerebral Cortex. PDF

Apps, M. A. J., Lockwood, P. L., & Balsters, J. (2013). The role of the midcingulate cortex in monitoring others decisions. Frontiers in Neuroscience. PDF

Apps, M. A. J., & Tsakiris, M.(2013). Predictive codes of familiarity and context during the perceptual learning of facial identities. Nature Communications. PDF

Apps, M. A. J., Green, R., & Ramnani, N. (2013). Reinforcement learning signals in the anterior cingulate cortex code for others’ false beliefs. Neuroimage. PDF

Apps, M. A. J., Tajadura-Jimenez, A., Turley, G,. & Tsakiris, M. (2012). The different faces of ones self: an fMRI study into the recognition of current and past self-facial appearances.  Neuroimage. PDF

Apps, M. A. J., Balsters, J. H., & Ramnani, N. (2012). The Anterior Cingulate Cortex: Monitoring the outcomes of others decisions.  Social Neuroscience. PDF

Lesage, E., Apps, M. A. J., Hayter, A. L., Beckmann, C. F., Barnes, D., Langdon, D. W., & Ramnani, N. (2010). Cerebellar Information Processing In Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS).  Behavioural Neurology. PDF